Last time, I looked at the composition of the Naval Landing Party for Sharp Practice. Today, I want to show you what it looks like on my gaming table.
As always, I used 15mm figures. There are some dedicated American Civil War Marines available in 15mm, but they wear dress uniform with shako which was never worn in battle. For my three groups of Marines, I made do with Peter Pig infantry figures. I especially like the reloading poses, as they show how much time and effort it took to load a musket.
The drummer, the NCO and the officer are from QRF/Freikorp15. I painted the officer in the white summer dress to add some variety.
For the three groups of sailors, I used figures by QRF and Minifigs. I like the Minifigs miniatures a bit better as they are nicer sculpts and have a variety of poses. I painted some of them in a darker skin colour, as up to one fifth of US seamen were African-Americans. The leader figures with the whistles are from QRF, while the guy with the cutlass is a converted Peter Pig naval artilleryman.
I built the Dahlgren boat howitzer completely from scratch, as there is no model available. The gun crew is from Peter Pig. Those are very nice and versatile figures which can easily be converted.
I’ve also used them for a crew of my 90-day-gunboat which will provide the heavy support for the landing party. The officers are from Peter Pig’s naval ship crew, to be found in their Colonial range. Their uniforms are not a perfect match, but they are close enough.
Finally I made two vignettes for deployment points. The main deployment point was inspired by a period photograph and represents a signalling party. The sailors are again from the Peter Pig naval artillery crew with flags added, while the NCO with the field glasses is from the Union gun crew pack.
The secondary deployment point shows two sailors foraging. Again Peter Pig naval artillerymen were used, one of which got a chicken from Museum Miniatures (I think).
I had a lot of fun modelling the Naval Landing Party, as it provided a bit of diversion from the usual ACW painting. We’ve already used them in two games (see here and here for AARs) and they worked quite well. However, my main objective is a large scenario featuring the ship – hopefully, I’ll find an opportunity to stage it sometime during summer.
We are moving house.. again. However, this time it’s within the same city, so if all goes well I’ll be back at the painting and gaming table in no time. In fact, things should actually improve space-wise – there is even the possibility of getting a gaming room. I’ll keep you informed!
Meanwhile, I want to share some American Civil War images I’ve recently come across. First is a photo I found on the fold3 database, towards which Andy Hall pointed me and which has free access until April 15. It’s one of the rare occasions to see sailors operating ashore, here drilling with Dahlgren boat howitzers. The third wheel on the carriage and the drag rope for manhandling the gun can be clearly seen.
Moving on to the landlubbers, here we have a curious image (also from fold3) of an US regiment drilling to form square against cavalry. As far as I know, this never happened on the battlefield, but it does give a nice impression of the dimensions of a regimental square.
The last image is from the Library of Congress and is one of my favorite Civil War photos, as it shows something that is usually forgotten: namely logistics. Here we have a Union wagon park at Brandy Station.
The neat rows of carts create the impression of a well-organised wagon train – hopefully an auspicious image for our house move…
When the Civil War broke out, the Union navy had a mere 7.000 men and forty functioning ships. An intense recruitment program was started, often trying to lure men into service with exaggerated promises of prize money. At the end of the war, the navy had 51.500 men serving on 670 ships.
Sailors relaxing on the deck of USS Monitor
African American sailor.
In contrast to soldiers, who generally had a rural background, sailors predominantly came from the urban working class. 45% of recruits were foreign-born immigrants, most of them Irish, but many from England, Canada, Germany and many more states. The navy also had a long-standing tradition of recruiting African-Americans and by the end of the Civil War, 15-20% of the men serving were black.
Sailor had the reputation of being rowdy and ill-disciplined, but they were also hard-working and proved to be quite able in combat. As the blockade of the Confederate coast was central to Union strategy, landing operations were conducted from the beginning on. Sailors were drilled with small weapons and regularly landed for shooting exercises. As boarding actions were very rare, they were not accustomed to fighting in close quarters. There was a least one occasion when they did attack enemy lines with close combat weapons (the ill-fated assault on Fort Fisher), but most of the time it seems that they preferred to shoot at the enemy from a distance. Admiral Dahlgren’s instructions from August 8, 1864 state that “skirmish drill” was most appropriate for sailors.
Practicing close combat.
Sailors often operated together with a ship’s contingent of Marines. Marines were few in number – at the beginning of the war, there were only 1.800, and they never numbered more than 3.900 – but they belonged to the few regular troops available to the Federal government. Although they did fight in a couple of battles (most importantly at First Bull Run), most often they were employed in amphibious operations. They were also deployed as light infantry and would fight in open order. Shooting practice was encouraged and they were regarded as good marksmen.
Sailors were mostly armed with the Plymouth musket (Whitney Model 1861). The use of buckshot at short range was recommended by Dahlgren. Some .52 cal. Sharps and Hankins rifles were also in circulation, while pistols and cutlasses were used for assaults. Marines were armed with the Springfield rifle musket (M1855).
One special piece of equipment was the Dahlgren Light Boat Howitzer. Its carriage had a third wheel in the trail so it could be manhandled up a beach. A very mobile weapon, it was an integrated part of landing force tactics.
Naval Landing Parties conducted a large variety of operations. An important task was scouting, especially in the maze of waterways and inlets of the South Atlantic Coast. Armed launches would be dispatched to probe a river, looking for smugglers, blockade runners and hidden batteries. They were also sent to capture and destroy Confederate ships, confiscate or destroy contraband, hunt guerillas or storm gun emplacements.
There are a number of figures available. In 28mm, 1st Corps offers a large variety of Marines and Sailors. Redoubt also makes landing parties.
In 15mm, Minifigs produces Sailors and Marines, although the Marines are in dress uniform which was most probably never worn in battle. QRF/Freikorp15 also offers sailors, while Peter Pig makes a very nice naval artillery crew.
It is difficult to get detailed information on the operations of naval landing parties. I’m very grateful to Mr Chuck Veit, President of the reenactment group ‘U.S. Naval Landing Party’, who patiently answered my questions and generously shared his research. His website is a treasure trove of information, while his book A Dog Before a Soldier contains many ideas for scenarios. Very useful information on the Dahlgren Boat Howitzers can be found on Craig Swain’s blog To the Sound of the Guns.
Bennett, Michael J.: Union Jacks. Yankee Sailors in the Civil War, Chapel Hill, NC.: University of North Carolina Press 2004.
Browning, Robert M. Jr.: Success is all that was expected. The South Atlantic blockading squadron during the Civil War, Washington, DC: Brassey’s, Inc. 2002.
Field, Ron: American Civil War Marines 1861-65, Oxford: Osprey Publishing 2004.
Field, Ron: Bluejacket. Uniforms of the United States Navy in the Civil War Period 1852-1865, Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History 2010.
Veit, Chuck: A Dog Before a Soldier. Almost-lost Episodes in the U.S. Navy’s Civil War, self-published (Lulu.com) 2010.
EDIT: As Andy Hall (of the highly recommended Dead Confederates blog) was kind enough to point out that the sailors in the first image are not actually US sailors, I've changed the image to one showing crewmen of the USS Monitor relaxing on deck.
Having finished my new modular hills, I looked for an excuse to get them on the gaming table. Inspired by a napoleonic scenario I found in an old issue of Wargames Illustrated, I devised the following situation.
Bean Ridge (at the Western edge of the table) is a strategically important position, as it covers the flank of the Confederate marching column. To secure the location, pickets have been posted on a small wooded hill (at the Northern edge of the table) and in Henderson’s orchard (at the Southern table edge). However, the Union advance guard is already approaching – will the Confederates be able to hold their position long enough for their reinforcements to arrive and to drive back the Yankees?
I played the Confederates and initially had one group of skirmishers each in the orchard and on the hill. My main deployment point would appear at the beginning of turn 5 on the road at the Northwestern corner of the table. K., who played the Union, had two deployment points at the Eastern table edge.
Each of the objectives – the orchard, the small hill and Bean Ridge – was worth 5 points, defeating the enemy was also worth 5 points. Whoever was last in possession of the objective would get the points at the end – so you don’t have to stay there, you just have to make sure the other force doesn’t occupy it after you left.
To give the attacker an edge, I let K. chose between three supports: an additional group of skirmishers, a group of cavalry or one light gun. I would know which she took when she deployed them.
Due to the close distance between my pickets and the Union deployment points, the game started right into the action. When K.’s line of three groups entered, my skirmishers on the hill immediately started firing. A lucky bullet hit the Union’s Sergeant, killing him instantly. An inauspicious start for the boys in blue! My guys in the orchard shot at the other Federals, which didn’t enter in formation but as individual groups. One of them was driven back by the skirmishers’ withering fire.
However, the Union Leader calmly brought his line into position, made them present arms and then ordered them to concentrate their fire at the skirmishers on the hill. When the smoke had cleared, the poor rebel Sgt. stood alone on the hill – his whole group was wiped out!
Inspired by this success, the second group of Union skirmishers (that’s what K. chose as support) charged towards the orchard. The Confederates decided to fall back – I didn’t want to lose my other group of skirmishers in a bloody and unpredictable melee. However, I was losing heart and hoped that the reinforcements could turn the situation around.
The Confederate Leader marched the majority of his men in column along the road to get into a blocking position. Two groups were sent up the small hill, which had meanwhile been occupied by the Union skirmishers.
When confronted with cold steel, the Union skirmishers fell back and the hill was again in Confederate hands. Also, the Confederate Leader had formed his men into a firing line and opened up on the advancing Federals. Things were definitely improving for the Rebels!
My intent was now to pin the Union line with my line and work the groups on the hill around the Union’s right flank. After a first controlled volley, I let them fire at will, hoping that the faster rate of fire could counteract the more precise shooting of the Federals, which were still manoeuvering into position. The exchange of fire between the two lines soon became a stalemate and a contest of attrition. For a while, each line stubbornly stood its ground.
However, after the initial shock of the determined Confederate counterattack K. quickly stepped up her game. First, she sorted out her left flank, which hung in tatters since my skirmishers had forced one of the groups back. She decided that those fellows were beyond help and concentrated on her still intact group, attaching it to her line. This in turn enabled her to detach one group from the right end of her line, which moved into position to block the Rebel groups advancing down the hill.
As her skirmishers also formed a screen, my groups now faced two Union groups. I decided to pull them back to the small hill, where they at least had cover from the wooded area – after all, it would be enough to deny the Union this position.
However, the Confederate counterattack was stalled and the momentum changed back to the Union. Suddenly, “inspired by their volley and convinced the enemy is done for” (as it says in the random event that now happened), my line rushed forward. Unfortunately, they never reached the enemy line, getting bogged down in rough ground. This was the Union’s chance: with a crashing volley, they made the Rebels reel back.
This well-timed blow broke the stalemate between the two lines and sealed the Confederates’ fate. The Rebel line fell into disarray. The last remaining Confederate skirmishers were destroyed by another volley, which enabled the Union skirmishers to advance unopposed to the foot of Bean Ridge.
My Force Morale was at 2, while K.’s was still at 7. With both groups of skirmishers lost, my firing line broken and individual groups withdrawing I knew I had no chance and conceded defeat. I still had the hill, so that was 5 points for me, but K. had the orchard, Bean Ridge and she had defeated me, so 15 points and victory for her!
Another dramatic game, which was made even more exciting because we both were in quite good form. For once I made no severe tactical mistakes and for a moment even felt like I had victory in my grasp. However, by coolly reorganising her battle line K. managed to stall my counterattack and with her crashing volley delivered a punch my already battered line couldn’t recover from. A well deserved victory for the Union!