Waterloo in 15 Minutes

Originally, I wanted to publish this review last year, what with the anniversary and everything. Everyone seemed to be busy painting hundreds of Imperial Guard miniatures and Waterloo games were all over the place. Even I succumb to the buzz and managed to read two books: The first being the excellent The Battle: A New History of Waterloo by Alessandro Barbero, the second the rather disappointing The Longest Afternoon by Brendan Simms. I never, however, even thought about gaming Waterloo – the model count is too off-putting and I’m not really interested in big battle games anyway.

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But then I stumbled over a review of a boardgame that promises to let you replay the Battle of Waterloo in 15 minutes. I was hooked. Generally, I’m not much interested in board wargames (although I like other kinds of boardgames). I’m turned off by the hex-and-counter aesthetics and the complicated rules with their paragraphs.

W1815 is an attractive little game published by the Finnish company U&P Games. It comes in a plastic bag, which contains wooden blocks, a cardboard map, cards and two dice. The game places the player at the highest level of command: Basically, you are Napoleon or Wellington, you have already positioned your troops and the battle is about to begin. There is no room for manoeuvring – in fact, there is no movement at all. This may come as a surprise to wargamers, but thinking of some miniature wargames of big battles I’ve seen, there is no real manoeuvring either, as there is no space for it.

Instead, the game is all about timing. Each player has a selection of action cards and is allowed to conduct one action on his or her turn. Some actions can be countered by the other player, and some can trigger further events. The aim of the game is to force the enemy to make and fail a morale test. If the army is broken, the game is over.

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The game is easy to learn and quick to play. It nevertheless gives very exciting and dramatic games. We’ve played several times now and each game had a unique narrative. I fondly remember winning with the French by committing the Guard at just the right moment!

W1815 is a very abstract model of the Battle of Waterloo. For me, it nevertheless – or perhaps for exactly this reason – captures what such a battle was all about on the highest level of command. It’s not about manoeuvring regiments, forming squares and trying to get the right angle for a flank attack, but about getting a grip on the flow of events and finding the right moment to commit your troops.

I can highly recommend W1815 – it’s an innovative game with interesting mechanisms that deliver a fun and exciting game. I think it would also be an excellent instrument for teaching or explaining the Battle of Waterloo and napoleonic tactics.

The Women of Waterloo

Logo_smallThis month we commemorate the Battle of Waterloo, which was fought 200 years ago on 18th June. What would be more appropriate than to also remember the women who fought and died on this day?

It’s not very surprising that women should have been present at Waterloo. For a start, there exists a long tradition of women donning men’s cloths and joining the army, a tradition that reached its peak in the 18th century. Yet we have only scarce evidence of women disguised as men at that battle. One is that among the dead, a woman was found in the uniform of an officer of the French hussars.

Much more numerous were the camp followers. Every army of this time relied on women to keep going. They did the washing and cooking, cared for the wounded and provided all kinds of comforts to the men. Often, the wives of soldiers and officers accompanied their husbands into battle. Wellington’s army was accompanied by several thousands of women when it arrived in Belgium. Although he ordered all women back behind the lines immediately before the battle of Waterloo, several disobeyed the orders and decided to stay.

Cantinière of a French line regiment.
Cantinière of a French line regiment.

In the French army, the ‘official’ female camp followers were organised into cantinières (or vivandières, the terms were used interchangeably) and blanchisseuses. Cantinières were officially allowed to sell food and drink and had to be married to a soldier of the regiment. Blanchisseuses were responsible for the laundry. Each infantry battalion had up to four cantinières attached – meaning there were probably around 600 of these women present on the French side at Waterloo. However, there certainly were an unspecified number of ‘unofficial’ camp followers, such as wives, lovers or prostitutes.

Camp followers often hovered around close to the battalion when it was deployed in the field. They brought brandy, water and sometimes ammunition to the men and helped to carry back the wounded. Being that close to the action meant that they were as affected by enemy fire as the soldiers. At Waterloo, a cannon ball killed a cantinière of the Old Guard grenadiers when the battalion was positioned at the Brussels road. The wife of a sergeant of the 28th foot was wounded when she dragged her injured husband into safety. After the battle, corpses of French as well as British women were found among the dead.

A cantinière in action.
A cantinière in action.

In the heat of battle, the line between ‘proper’ soldiers and non-combatants could blur. Cantinières could and did fight (while, on the other hand, there were soldiers known to vanish miraculously each time a battle was about to get serious). One eyewitness writes:

“As is common in the camp, the camp followers wore male attire, with nearly as martial a bearing as the soldiers and some were even mounted and rode astride.”

Most cantinières were armed and fought to defend themselves when caught up in an attack or threatened by marauding cavalry. Some were even known to join the firing line. The most famous example of such a fighting woman is Marie Tête-de-Bois. Working as a cantinière during the First Empire, she had to leave the army during the Restauration, which cut back on cantinières as it suspected them of harbouring pro-napoleonic sentiments. When Napoleon returned, she immediately rejoined the army and received a position with the Imperial Guard. She was known to be dependable, brave and ready to enter the fray. One of her officers wrote:

“Her place on a day of battle was at the most perilous point… Marie knew how to fire a musket and follow up with a bayonet thrust.”

At the Battle of Waterloo, she stayed with the Guard till the end and died in their last stand.

Cantinière fighting.
Cantinière fighting.

Putting those women back into the picture also shows that napoleonic battlefields were not exactly the neat parade grounds so beloved by wargamers and diorama builders, where ramrod straight formations march in perfect order over deserted fields. Judging from contemporary reports, there was a constant to and fro of people: Officers riding around trying to understand what’s happening elsewhere, men falling to the rear to help wounded comrades, to replace a broken musket or just to make themselves scarce, others heading towards the front bringing ammunition, water or simply hoping to get some plunder – and women were in the midst of the fray. This chaos is modelled by rules such as Sharp Practice, but it is seldom represented on a visual level, that is with figures.

So what figures are available to represent the women of Waterloo?

WestfaliaCantiniere
Westfalia Cantinière

In 28mm, Westfalia Miniatures has a splendid French cantinière depicted in the act of loading a musket. Warlord Games has another one that can be fitted with a pistol, ready to defend herself and her donkey. Foundry also offers a suitable figure, as does Eureka Miniatures.

Elite Wargames and Models have a selection of female napoleonic figures, including a female French hussar and a cantinière. For more information, please contact elitewargamesmodels [at] gmail.com.

Dave Ryan at Caliver Books was kind enough to send me a sample of the lovely 15mm Minifigs Vivandière set, which comes with a cart and two Vivandières, one driving the cart and the other walking.

Minifigs Vivandière
Minifigs Vivandières

Stonewall Figures offers three 15mm Sutleress in their Les Carabiniers Cassique range. Warmodelling also had some suitable figures on offer, but they are out of production at the moment. However, Dermot Quigley of Campaign Game Miniatures told me they might be recast, so watch their website.

If you prefer 1/72, Schilling has two sets, one with a vivandière’s cart on the move and one with a camp scene.

 

Bibliography

Barbero, Alessandro: The Battle. A New History of Waterloo, London: Atlantic Books 2006.

Cardoza, Thomas: Intrepid Women: Cantinières and Vivandières of the French Army, Bloomington: Indiana University Press 2010 (the author also has a homepage dedicated to the subject).

historynet.com: Napoleonic Wars: Women at Waterloo