Wall’s Bridge – Sharp Practice AAR

This scenario is based on a historical skirmish which took place on May 1 1863 during Grierson’s raid through Mississippi.

The historical situation

Grierson's_raiders
Grierson’s troopers around Baton Rouge near the end of the raid.

Since April 17, Union cavalry under Col. Benjamin Grierson had been moving through Tennessee and Mississippi, destroying railroads, burning Confederate stores and freeing slaves. The Confederates had dispatched several detachments to hunt down the raiders. Around noon on May 1, the Ninth Louisiana Partisan Rangers (Major J. de Baun), while on their way to intercept Grierson’s men, halted at Wall’s Bridge. As always, Grierson had sent his scouts ahead, which were nicknamed ‘Butternut Guerillas’ because they wore Confederate uniform. When some of the scouts confronted a Confederate officer, carelessness led to a shot being fired. This alarmed the Rangers, who took position to ambush the Union troopers.

Seeing his scouts bring in Confederate prisoners, Lt.-Col. Blackburn, who was in charge of the Butternut Guerillas, galloped towards the bridge, shouting to his men to come along. When they reached the bridge, a volley was fired. Blackburn and Sgt. Surby were hit while their men scrambled for cover. Pinned in the underbrush of the river embankment, they hoped that reinforcements would arrive soon.

The game

The scenario started with a leaderless group of Butternut Guerillas (Union cavalry) positioned in cover at the river bank. A group of Confederate skirmishers were in the woods opposite the road. For the first two turns, only Leader 2 (with two units of cavalry) and two blue flag cards were in the deck for the Union side. The rest of the Union cards would be added at the beginning of the third turn.

setup

K., wo played the Confederates, immediately deployed her infantry to block the road while her cavalry moved around the woods on her left flank, evidently trying to outflank me. I deployed two groups of cavalry on foot and had them take position at the river bank to the right of the bridge. The skirmishers sniped at my pinned scouts, but all the shooting caused a pall of smoke to hang before them (firing random event). I reckoned that this was my chance to get the Butternut Guerillas out of their predicament and rushed them back towards the other side of the river. Despite being shot at by a group of Rebel infantry marching along the road, they made it safely into cover.

early

Meanwhile, the Rebel cavalry had advanced to the river and was preparing to ford it. They were quite a spectacular sight and for a moment caused some unease in the Union ranks. However, when they came under fire from my dismounted troopers, a lucky bullet hit the Confederate leader, killing him instantly. Milling about leaderless at the embankment, the riders were no immediate danger for my right flank.

So, when the rest of my cavalry finally arrived, I decided to send them on a charge across the bridge. K. had deployed her infantry in single groups, so I hoped to drive them back without taking too many losses.

Regrettably, it didn’t work out as planned. The Rebs stood up against the charge and gave my horsemen a good licking. Broken, they retreated in panic. Fortunately, my Leader was able to rally them and prevent them from fleeing off the field.

Rallying

Evidently, a more methodical approach would be advisable, so I dismounted my other group and had them take position to the left of the bridge. K. had meanwhile formed a line and for a while, Confederate and Union troops exchanged fire.

On my right flank, the withering fire from my repeating rifles had driven back one group of Confederate cavalry. The other group had dismounted and managed to wade through the river, intent on falling upon me with pistols and shotguns blazing.

dismtdrebs

They were, however, driven off by the concentrated fire of my dismounted troopers.

The situation was looking bad for the Confederates and it got even worse when I finally deployed my Woodruff gun.

WoodruffGun
I know it’s the wrong gun, but I couldn’t find my other model…

After two shots from this light piece of artillery, the Rebel commander decided he’d had enough and retreated – with her Force Morale at 3 against mine at 7, K. conceded.

end

Analysis

This was a bit of a mixed affair. We both hadn’t played Sharp Practice for a while and felt a bit rusty rules-wise, which interrupted the flow. Also, K. was really unlucky: her shooting was dismal and losing her cavalry leader early in the game completely stalled her counter-attack and allowed me to make my foolhardy charge without any real negative consequences. There was also a slight balance issue, as I’ve underestimated the Union cavalry’s repeating rifles – being able to deliver the double volume of fire makes them formidable enemies!

Historically, what happened was that the first group of Union reinforcements to arrive also rashly charged across the bridge, only to be repulsed by Confederate volleys. When Grierson finally arrived at the scene, he had his men dismount and advance on both sides of the bridge. They formed a skirmish line along the river bank while Cpt. Smith brought forward the Woodruff guns. When the skirmishers and the guns opened fire, the Rebel shooting started to wane. Grierson now advanced his mounted troopers, two groups fording the river on the flanks and one charging across the bridge. The Confederates broke and retreated.

In the afternoon of the same day, Grierson’s men had another close brush at Williams’ Bridge before they could cross into Union territory. They had covered over 600 miles in less than sixteen days, capturing and paroling over 500 prisoners, destroying around 50 miles of railroad and telegraphs as well as immense amounts of army stores and capturing 1000 horses and mules. Most importantly, they had created a diversion which enabled General Grant to safely land his troops below Vicksburg, leading to his taking of the city.

Project Showcase: Naval Landing Party

Last time, I looked at the composition of the Naval Landing Party for Sharp Practice. Today, I want to show you what it looks like on my gaming table.

As always, I used 15mm figures. There are some dedicated American Civil War Marines available in 15mm, but they wear dress uniform with shako which was never worn in battle. For my three groups of Marines, I made do with Peter Pig infantry figures. I especially like the reloading poses, as they show how much time and effort it took to load a musket.

MarinesMarineLeaders

The drummer, the NCO and the officer are from QRF/Freikorp15. I painted the officer in the white summer dress to add some variety.

SailorsSailorLeaders

For the three groups of sailors, I used figures by QRF and Minifigs. I like the Minifigs miniatures a bit better as they are nicer sculpts and have a variety of poses. I painted some of them in a darker skin colour, as up to one fifth of US seamen were African-Americans. The leader figures with the whistles are from QRF, while the guy with the cutlass is a converted Peter Pig naval artilleryman.

Gun

I built the Dahlgren boat howitzer completely from scratch, as there is no model available. The gun crew is from Peter Pig. Those are very nice and versatile figures which can easily be converted.

I’ve also used them for a crew of my 90-day-gunboat which will provide the heavy support for the landing party. The officers are from Peter Pig’s naval ship crew, to be found in their Colonial range. Their uniforms are not a perfect match, but they are close enough.

Finally I made two vignettes for deployment points. The main deployment point was inspired by a period photograph and represents a signalling party. The sailors are again from the Peter Pig naval artillery crew with flags added, while the NCO with the field glasses is from the Union gun crew pack.

Signal

The secondary deployment point shows two sailors foraging. Again Peter Pig naval artillerymen were used, one of which got a chicken from Museum Miniatures (I think).

Forage

I had a lot of fun modelling the Naval Landing Party, as it provided a bit of diversion from the usual ACW painting. We’ve already used them in two games (see here and here for AARs) and they worked quite well. However, my main objective is a large scenario featuring the ship – hopefully, I’ll find an opportunity to stage it sometime during summer.

Union Naval Landing Party for Sharp Practice

When the Civil War broke out, the Union navy had a mere 7.000 men and forty functioning ships. An intense recruitment program was started, often trying to lure men into service with exaggerated promises of prize money. At the end of the war, the navy had 51.500 men serving on 670 ships.

In contrast to soldiers, who generally had a rural background, sailors predominantly came from the urban working class. 45% of recruits were foreign-born immigrants, most of them Irish, but many from England, Canada, Germany and many more states. The navy also had a long-standing tradition of recruiting African-Americans and by the end of the Civil War, 15-20% of the men serving were black.

Sailor had the reputation of being rowdy and ill-disciplined, but they were also hard-working and proved to be quite able in combat. As the blockade of the Confederate coast was central to Union strategy, landing operations were conducted from the beginning on. Sailors were drilled with small weapons and regularly landed for shooting exercises. As boarding actions were very rare, they were not accustomed to fighting in close quarters. There was a least one occasion when they did attack enemy lines with close combat weapons (the ill-fated assault on Fort Fisher), but most of the time it seems that they preferred to shoot at the enemy from a distance. Admiral Dahlgren’s instructions from August 8, 1864 state that “skirmish drill” was most appropriate for sailors.

Sailors often operated together with a ship’s contingent of Marines. Marines were few in number – at the beginning of the war, there were only 1.800, and they never numbered more than 3.900 – but they belonged to the few regular troops available to the Federal government. Although they did fight in a couple of battles (most importantly at First Bull Run), most often they were employed in amphibious operations. They were also deployed as light infantry and would fight in open order. Shooting practice was encouraged and they were regarded as good marksmen.

Sailors were mostly armed with the Plymouth musket (Whitney Model 1861). The use of buckshot at short range was recommended by Dahlgren. Some .52 cal. Sharps and Hankins rifles were also in circulation, while pistols and cutlasses were used for assaults. Marines were armed with the Springfield rifle musket (M1855).

battery
Sailors working a battery during the siege of Port Hudson.

One special piece of equipment was the Dahlgren Light Boat Howitzer. Its carriage had a third wheel in the trail so it could be manhandled up a beach. A very mobile weapon, it was an integrated part of landing force tactics.

dahlgren2
Dahlgren Boat Howitzer.

Naval Landing Parties conducted a large variety of operations. An important task was scouting, especially in the maze of waterways and inlets of the South Atlantic Coast. Armed launches would be dispatched to probe a river, looking for smugglers, blockade runners and hidden batteries. They were also sent to capture and destroy Confederate ships, confiscate or destroy contraband, hunt guerillas or storm gun emplacements.

Such operations make, of course, perfect scenarios for Sharp Practice. My Force List for the Union Naval Landing Party can be found here or in the Resources section of this blog.

There are a number of figures available. In 28mm, 1st Corps offers a large variety of Marines and Sailors. Redoubt also makes landing parties.

In 15mm, Minifigs produces Sailors and Marines, although the Marines are in dress uniform which was most probably never worn in battle. QRF/Freikorp15 also offers sailors, while Peter Pig makes a very nice naval artillery crew.

sentry
Sailor standing sentry.

Bibliography

It is difficult to get detailed information on the operations of naval landing parties. I’m very grateful to Mr Chuck Veit, President of the reenactment group ‘U.S. Naval Landing Party’, who patiently answered my questions and generously shared his research. His website is a treasure trove of information, while his book A Dog Before a Soldier contains many ideas for scenarios. Very useful information on the Dahlgren Boat Howitzers can be found on Craig Swain’s blog To the Sound of the Guns.

Bennett, Michael J.: Union Jacks. Yankee Sailors in the Civil War, Chapel Hill, NC.: University of North Carolina Press 2004.

Browning, Robert M. Jr.: Success is all that was expected. The South Atlantic blockading squadron during the Civil War, Washington, DC: Brassey’s, Inc. 2002.

Field, Ron: American Civil War Marines 1861-65, Oxford: Osprey Publishing 2004.

Field, Ron: Bluejacket. Uniforms of the United States Navy in the Civil War Period 1852-1865, Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History 2010.

Veit, Chuck: A Dog Before a Soldier. Almost-lost Episodes in the U.S. Navy’s Civil War, self-published (Lulu.com) 2010.

EDIT: As Andy Hall (of the highly recommended Dead Confederates blog) was kind enough to point out that the sailors in the first image are not actually US sailors, I've changed the image to one showing crewmen of the USS Monitor relaxing on deck.

Battle of Bean Ridge – Sharp Practice AAR

Having finished my new modular hills, I looked for an excuse to get them on the gaming table. Inspired by a napoleonic scenario I found in an old issue of Wargames Illustrated, I devised the following situation.

setup

Bean Ridge (at the Western edge of the table) is a strategically important position, as it covers the flank of the Confederate marching column. To secure the location, pickets have been posted on a small wooded hill (at the Northern edge of the table) and in Henderson’s orchard (at the Southern table edge). However, the Union advance guard is already approaching – will the Confederates be able to hold their position long enough for their reinforcements to arrive and to drive back the Yankees?

I played the Confederates and initially had one group of skirmishers each in the orchard and on the hill. My main deployment point would appear at the beginning of turn 5 on the road at the Northwestern corner of the table. K., who played the Union, had two deployment points at the Eastern table edge.

Each of the objectives – the orchard, the small hill and Bean Ridge – was worth 5 points, defeating the enemy was also worth 5 points. Whoever was last in possession of the objective would get the points at the end – so you don’t have to stay there, you just have to make sure the other force doesn’t occupy it after you left.

To give the attacker an edge, I let K. chose between three supports: an additional group of skirmishers, a group of cavalry or one light gun. I would know which she took when she deployed them.

Due to the close distance between my pickets and the Union deployment points, the game started right into the action. When K.’s line of three groups entered, my skirmishers on the hill immediately started firing. A lucky bullet hit the Union’s Sergeant, killing him instantly. An inauspicious start for the boys in blue! My guys in the orchard shot at the other Federals, which didn’t enter in formation but as individual groups. One of them was driven back by the skirmishers’ withering fire.

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However, the Union Leader calmly brought his line into position, made them present arms and then ordered them to concentrate their fire at the skirmishers on the hill. When the smoke had cleared, the poor rebel Sgt. stood alone on the hill – his whole group was wiped out!

Inspired by this success, the second group of Union skirmishers (that’s what K. chose as support) charged towards the orchard. The Confederates decided to fall back – I didn’t want to lose my other group of skirmishers in a bloody and unpredictable melee. However, I was losing heart and hoped that the reinforcements could turn the situation around.

pic5
Union skirmishers driving in the Rebel pickets.

The Confederate Leader marched the majority of his men in column along the road to get into a blocking position. Two groups were sent up the small hill, which had meanwhile been occupied by the Union skirmishers.

pic6

pic7
Up and at them, boys!

When confronted with cold steel, the Union skirmishers fell back and the hill was again in Confederate hands. Also, the Confederate Leader had formed his men into a firing line and opened up on the advancing Federals. Things were definitely improving for the Rebels!

My intent was now to pin the Union line with my line and work the groups on the hill around the Union’s right flank. After a first controlled volley, I let them fire at will, hoping that the faster rate of fire could counteract the more precise shooting of the Federals, which were still manoeuvering into position. The exchange of fire between the two lines soon became a stalemate and a contest of attrition. For a while, each line stubbornly stood its ground.

However, after the initial shock of the determined Confederate counterattack K. quickly stepped up her game. First, she sorted out her left flank, which hung in tatters since my skirmishers had forced one of the groups back. She decided that those fellows were beyond help and concentrated on her still intact group, attaching it to her line. This in turn enabled her to detach one group from the right end of her line, which moved into position to block the Rebel groups advancing down the hill.

pic10
Swift and determined action saves the Union flank!

As her skirmishers also formed a screen, my groups now faced two Union groups. I decided to pull them back to the small hill, where they at least had cover from the wooded area – after all, it would be enough to deny the Union this position.

However, the Confederate counterattack was stalled and the momentum changed back to the Union. Suddenly, “inspired by their volley and convinced the enemy is done for” (as it says in the random event that now happened), my line rushed forward. Unfortunately, they never reached the enemy line, getting bogged down in rough ground. This was the Union’s chance: with a crashing volley, they made the Rebels reel back.

pic11
A crashing volley tears into the Confederate line.

This well-timed blow broke the stalemate between the two lines and sealed the Confederates’ fate. The Rebel line fell into disarray. The last remaining Confederate skirmishers were destroyed by another volley, which enabled the Union skirmishers to advance unopposed to the foot of Bean Ridge.

pic12
The end is at hand.

My Force Morale was at 2, while K.’s was still at 7. With both groups of skirmishers lost, my firing line broken and individual groups withdrawing I knew I had no chance and conceded defeat. I still had the hill, so that was 5 points for me, but K. had the orchard, Bean Ridge and she had defeated me, so 15 points and victory for her!

Another dramatic game, which was made even more exciting because we both were in quite good form. For once I made no severe tactical mistakes and for a moment even felt like I had victory in my grasp. However, by coolly reorganising her battle line K. managed to stall my counterattack and with her crashing volley delivered a punch my already battered line couldn’t recover from. A well deserved victory for the Union!