Last time, I looked at the composition of the Naval Landing Party for Sharp Practice. Today, I want to show you what it looks like on my gaming table.
As always, I used 15mm figures. There are some dedicated American Civil War Marines available in 15mm, but they wear dress uniform with shako which was never worn in battle. For my three groups of Marines, I made do with Peter Pig infantry figures. I especially like the reloading poses, as they show how much time and effort it took to load a musket.
The drummer, the NCO and the officer are from QRF/Freikorp15. I painted the officer in the white summer dress to add some variety.
For the three groups of sailors, I used figures by QRF and Minifigs. I like the Minifigs miniatures a bit better as they are nicer sculpts and have a variety of poses. I painted some of them in a darker skin colour, as up to one fifth of US seamen were African-Americans. The leader figures with the whistles are from QRF, while the guy with the cutlass is a converted Peter Pig naval artilleryman.
I built the Dahlgren boat howitzer completely from scratch, as there is no model available. The gun crew is from Peter Pig. Those are very nice and versatile figures which can easily be converted.
I’ve also used them for a crew of my 90-day-gunboat which will provide the heavy support for the landing party. The officers are from Peter Pig’s naval ship crew, to be found in their Colonial range. Their uniforms are not a perfect match, but they are close enough.
Finally I made two vignettes for deployment points. The main deployment point was inspired by a period photograph and represents a signalling party. The sailors are again from the Peter Pig naval artillery crew with flags added, while the NCO with the field glasses is from the Union gun crew pack.
The secondary deployment point shows two sailors foraging. Again Peter Pig naval artillerymen were used, one of which got a chicken from Museum Miniatures (I think).
I had a lot of fun modelling the Naval Landing Party, as it provided a bit of diversion from the usual ACW painting. We’ve already used them in two games (see here and here for AARs) and they worked quite well. However, my main objective is a large scenario featuring the ship – hopefully, I’ll find an opportunity to stage it sometime during summer.
We are moving house.. again. However, this time it’s within the same city, so if all goes well I’ll be back at the painting and gaming table in no time. In fact, things should actually improve space-wise – there is even the possibility of getting a gaming room. I’ll keep you informed!
Meanwhile, I want to share some American Civil War images I’ve recently come across. First is a photo I found on the fold3 database, towards which Andy Hall pointed me and which has free access until April 15. It’s one of the rare occasions to see sailors operating ashore, here drilling with Dahlgren boat howitzers. The third wheel on the carriage and the drag rope for manhandling the gun can be clearly seen.
Moving on to the landlubbers, here we have a curious image (also from fold3) of an US regiment drilling to form square against cavalry. As far as I know, this never happened on the battlefield, but it does give a nice impression of the dimensions of a regimental square.
The last image is from the Library of Congress and is one of my favorite Civil War photos, as it shows something that is usually forgotten: namely logistics. Here we have a Union wagon park at Brandy Station.
The neat rows of carts create the impression of a well-organised wagon train – hopefully an auspicious image for our house move…
When the Civil War broke out, the Union navy had a mere 7.000 men and forty functioning ships. An intense recruitment program was started, often trying to lure men into service with exaggerated promises of prize money. At the end of the war, the navy had 51.500 men serving on 670 ships.
Sailors relaxing on the deck of USS Monitor
African American sailor.
In contrast to soldiers, who generally had a rural background, sailors predominantly came from the urban working class. 45% of recruits were foreign-born immigrants, most of them Irish, but many from England, Canada, Germany and many more states. The navy also had a long-standing tradition of recruiting African-Americans and by the end of the Civil War, 15-20% of the men serving were black.
Sailor had the reputation of being rowdy and ill-disciplined, but they were also hard-working and proved to be quite able in combat. As the blockade of the Confederate coast was central to Union strategy, landing operations were conducted from the beginning on. Sailors were drilled with small weapons and regularly landed for shooting exercises. As boarding actions were very rare, they were not accustomed to fighting in close quarters. There was a least one occasion when they did attack enemy lines with close combat weapons (the ill-fated assault on Fort Fisher), but most of the time it seems that they preferred to shoot at the enemy from a distance. Admiral Dahlgren’s instructions from August 8, 1864 state that “skirmish drill” was most appropriate for sailors.
Practicing close combat.
Sailors often operated together with a ship’s contingent of Marines. Marines were few in number – at the beginning of the war, there were only 1.800, and they never numbered more than 3.900 – but they belonged to the few regular troops available to the Federal government. Although they did fight in a couple of battles (most importantly at First Bull Run), most often they were employed in amphibious operations. They were also deployed as light infantry and would fight in open order. Shooting practice was encouraged and they were regarded as good marksmen.
Sailors were mostly armed with the Plymouth musket (Whitney Model 1861). The use of buckshot at short range was recommended by Dahlgren. Some .52 cal. Sharps and Hankins rifles were also in circulation, while pistols and cutlasses were used for assaults. Marines were armed with the Springfield rifle musket (M1855).
One special piece of equipment was the Dahlgren Light Boat Howitzer. Its carriage had a third wheel in the trail so it could be manhandled up a beach. A very mobile weapon, it was an integrated part of landing force tactics.
Naval Landing Parties conducted a large variety of operations. An important task was scouting, especially in the maze of waterways and inlets of the South Atlantic Coast. Armed launches would be dispatched to probe a river, looking for smugglers, blockade runners and hidden batteries. They were also sent to capture and destroy Confederate ships, confiscate or destroy contraband, hunt guerillas or storm gun emplacements.
There are a number of figures available. In 28mm, 1st Corps offers a large variety of Marines and Sailors. Redoubt also makes landing parties.
In 15mm, Minifigs produces Sailors and Marines, although the Marines are in dress uniform which was most probably never worn in battle. QRF/Freikorp15 also offers sailors, while Peter Pig makes a very nice naval artillery crew.
It is difficult to get detailed information on the operations of naval landing parties. I’m very grateful to Mr Chuck Veit, President of the reenactment group ‘U.S. Naval Landing Party’, who patiently answered my questions and generously shared his research. His website is a treasure trove of information, while his book A Dog Before a Soldier contains many ideas for scenarios. Very useful information on the Dahlgren Boat Howitzers can be found on Craig Swain’s blog To the Sound of the Guns.
Bennett, Michael J.: Union Jacks. Yankee Sailors in the Civil War, Chapel Hill, NC.: University of North Carolina Press 2004.
Browning, Robert M. Jr.: Success is all that was expected. The South Atlantic blockading squadron during the Civil War, Washington, DC: Brassey’s, Inc. 2002.
Field, Ron: American Civil War Marines 1861-65, Oxford: Osprey Publishing 2004.
Field, Ron: Bluejacket. Uniforms of the United States Navy in the Civil War Period 1852-1865, Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History 2010.
Veit, Chuck: A Dog Before a Soldier. Almost-lost Episodes in the U.S. Navy’s Civil War, self-published (Lulu.com) 2010.
EDIT: As Andy Hall (of the highly recommended Dead Confederates blog) was kind enough to point out that the sailors in the first image are not actually US sailors, I've changed the image to one showing crewmen of the USS Monitor relaxing on deck.
To spice things up, we also used a mechanics for secret objectives. We’ve used this system before for other games and it always provides an exciting experience – there’s a lot of second-guessing as it enables the attacker to makes faints and forces the defender to keep a reserve.
For this game, I made up three cards which would thematically fit with the background. The attacker (the Landing Party, which turned out to be K.) drew one of three cards – this would be her objective for the game. I didn’t know which card she drew, of course, so I had to watch every move and be prepared to rush in quickly.
The judge was located in the big house on the Northern edge of the table, the livestock were in the pigsty and the telegraph line went along the road on the Western table edge.
The game started with K. deploying her sailors. For the first couple of turns, the Leader commanding the Marines didn’t come up, but in true navy spirit the impetuous sailors rushed forward nevertheless.
One group ran towards the judge’s house, so I deployed one group of skirmishers there. The ball was opened by those groups exchanging some shots.
However, the bulk of the Union sailors ran towards the small homestead with the pigsty and took position behind the farm-house.
Could this be the Union’s objective? Better save than sorry, I thought, and deployed a line of my regulars to cover the farm. The others I deployed on the table but kept in reserve in column formation so as to be able to quickly react to any threat.
K. also deployed her Boat Howitzer on the hill and shot at the skirmishers on my left flank. However, we forgot two important artillery rules (round shot reduces cover and canister gets a +1 to hit), so it didn’t do much damage. Perhaps the powder got wet during the landing…
On the right flank, my guys at first kept the sailors in check, but then the Marines arrived.
I still feared some kind of ruse but had no other choice than to commit the rest of my regulars to my right flank. Normally, K. is a pretty cunning player, but this time she went for a rather direct approach, trying to force her way to the pigsty by bludgeoning my troops head-on.
The Marines positioned themselves behind a fence and began a withering fire. The firepower of a skirmish formation is quite formidable, especially if it is hidden behind an obstacle, which enhances its cover bonus even more. Having spent their first volley, my regulars kept up a ragged fire which didn’t make much of an impression on the Marines.
There was, however, a fierce struggle for the pigsty, with sailors heading into the muck only to be driven away by charging Confederates.
As always with Sharp Practice, melee is risky for both sides and the best way to drop Force Morale fast. K. also neglected to withdraw her broken sailors, so they came under fire from my skirmishers, which made them rout off the table. This was enough for the Union Commander: despite his Marines still being in good shape, he decided to pull out and call it a day. No pork for the crew of the USS Sasquatch today!
Another great game! The secret missions were fun and contributed to making the game more exciting. Forgetting the artillery rules was an embarrassing mistake – my skirmishers came under artillery fire a couple of times and probably would have been severely mauled if we had played it right. Also, if K. had pulled back her broken group, I couldn’t have dealt her the finishing blow. Her Marines were still strong and might have pulled off a victory by overwhelming me with their firepower had they had more time.
All in all, I think that the Landing Party works well. Our next plan is to play a campaign using the new supplement, Dawns & Departures.